This British study assessed how using two in-vehicle information and entertainment systems (Android Auto and Apple CarPlay) impacted specific areas of driver performance. These measures were reaction time, driving behaviour, eyes-off road and self-reported performance. A total of 40 participants were tested (20 for each system) and their ages ranged from 20 to 77 years. Each participant took three 20-minute drives in a simulator where they were asked to perform music, navigation, texting and calling tasks. Participants in both trial groups showed reduced average speed, increased headway deviation and more lane positioning deviation when they performed these tasks, particularly when they used touch controls. Both eye gaze measures and self-reported data indicated participants found touch interaction to be more difficult and distracting than voice interaction. Users in both the Android Auto and Apple CarPlay groups took more time to react to events on the road ahead when they were engaged with their respective systems, particularly when they were selecting music through Spotify. When using touch interaction for either system, participants’ reaction time was greater than that of drivers in previous studies who were distracted by texting and making hand-held calls.
Ramnath, R., Kinnear, N., Chowdhury, S., Hyatt, T. (2020). Interacting with Android Auto and Apple CarPlay when driving: The effect on driver performance: A simulator study (9781913246341).